Petroleum is a mixture of crude oil which is a liquid and natural gas. This mixture is found in the ground and it was formed million of years ago. Crude oil and natural gas are extracted from the ground, on land or under the oceans, and are then transported to refineries where their components are transformed into refined products. An oil refinery is an arrangement of manufacturing processes designed to produce physical and chemical changes in crude oil to convert it into everyday used products like petrol, diesel, lubricating oil and fuel oil.
Natural gazes are composed primarily of Methane, but it also contains small amounts of other hydrocarbons that have from two to five carbons.
The refining process
Fractional distillation: This step involves boiling petroleum which will be transformed to gas and then it will be condensed in the distillation unit. Each group of components are collected separately as they condense at different temperatures.
Cracking: This step is only for heavier fractions which are converted to gasoline or other lighter fractions by a process called cracking. Longer chains of carbons are broken into smaller chains.
Reforming: The reforming process is used to increase the quantity of gasoline by changing the form of an obtained liquid called ‘NAPHTHA’.
Blending: The composition of Gasoline is modified and adjusted to improve performance.
Purification: This is the final step. Impurities inside the gasoline are removed.