What is Bloom’s taxonomy ?
Bloom’s taxonomy was announced in 1956 under the leadership of the educational psychologist Benjamin bloom, to promote higher forms of thinking in education such as analysing and evaluating rather than just remembering facts.
Bloom’s taxonomy is a model of classifying thinking according to six domains. So the taxonomy is divided into six levels of learning, and we can associate action verbs with each of these levels. These six levels of learning can be used to create the lesson’s learning objectives.
The six levels are :
1- Remember: Remembering involves retrieving recognizing and recalling relevant knowledge from long term memory. Here are some verbs associated with this level: Define, identify, label, list.
2- Understand: Understanding means to construct information from oral written and graphic messages. The verbs associated with this level might be: Compare, discuss, summarize.
3- Apply: Applying involves carrying out or using a procedure through executing or implementing. Here are some verbs associated with the application level: Calculate, compute, manipulate, solve.
4- Analyse: Analysing deals with breaking material into constituent parts or determining how those parts relate to another Into an overall structure here are some verbs associated with this level: Distinguish, analyse, differentiate, investigate.
5- Evaluate: The learner is making judgments based on criteria and standards here are some verbs that might be associated with this level: argue, conclude, critique, test.
6- Create: Creating or putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure. Here are some verbs associated with creating: construct, design, invent, produce.
How to use Bloom’s taxonomy to write objectives for a lesson ?
Blooms Taxonomy is hierarchical and begins with lower thinking skills to higher thinking skills. The learning at the higher levels depend upon having attained knowledge and skills at lower levels.
Blooms classifies learning from lower order to higher order, and each category of learning builds upon the previous one. In order to clarify this concept, it can be said that before understanding a concept you must remember it, to apply a concept you must understand it, to evaluate a concept you must analyse it, and finally to create a conclusion you must have completed an evaluation.
So to introduce new concepts to students, they will need to understand remember and apply these concepts in order to move forward to the higher skills such as analysing evaluating and creating.
To design a course the complexity of the content should be taken into consideration as well as the learning level of the students, to determine where the majority of the learning should fall. Lower level or introductory courses introduce a variety of skills and new concepts and the majority of the learning objectives are within the lower order thinking skills. Advanced courses assume that students come prepared with the foundational knowledge, and they are ready to use this knowledge to move on to higher order of thinking and learning and therefore should contain learning objectives that focus on higher skills. In fact every course should have a variety of objectives from each domain, the number of objectives from each level depends on the content and the level of mastery that the student is expected to achieve.
let’s construct a measurable Learning objectives:
First start with a sentence which will repeat with every objective on the list: you can use “after completing this module students will be able to…” or “Students can …”
Next determine the learning outcomes. To determine them, teachers should think about what it is that they want the students to be able to do, and then they should think about how they will Know that their students understood the lesson.
In step three, teachers should consult Blooms Taxonomy and determine the appropriate level of learning and select an appropriate verb that reflects exactly what they want the learners to do.
In step four, teachers should write the verb and the learning outcome in a sentence.
Learning objectives are measurable observable statements of what students will be able to do at the end of a lesson. So with it is important to emphasize that strong learning objectives do not include vague or immeasurable terms like: understand, know, appreciate, become familiar with, learn, and be aware of. So teachers should select strong action verbs that will describe exactly what the learner will do. Specific measurable and observable objectives provide a solid foundation for the course design.